Hybrid and electric vehicles have been demonstrated as auspicious solutions for ensuring improvements in fuel saving and emission reductions. From the system design perspective, there are numerous indicators affecting the performance of such vehicles, in which the powertrain type, component configuration, and energy management strategy (EMS) play a key role. Achieving an energy-efficient powertrain requires tackling several conflicting control objectives such as the drivability, fuel economy, reduced emissions, and battery state of charge preservation, which make the EMS the most crucial aspect of powertrain system design. Accordingly, in the present study, various powertrain systems and topologies of (plug-in) hybrid electric vehicles and full-electric vehicles are assessed. In addition, EMSs as applied in the literature are systematically surveyed for a qualitative investigation, classification, and comparison of existing approaches in terms of the principles, advantages, and drawbacks through a comprehensive review. Furthermore, potential challenges considering the gaps in research are addressed, and directives paving the way toward further development of powertrains and EMSs in all respects are thoroughly provided.
Original languageEnglish
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 12 Nov 2019

ID: 48452560