INTRODUCTION: Nutrition is an important part of treatment in critically ill children. Clinical guidelines for nutrition adaptations during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) are lacking. We collected and evaluated current knowledge on this topic and provide recommendations.

METHODS: Questions were produced to guide the literature search in the PubMed database.

RESULTS: Evidence is scarce and extrapolation from adult data was often required. CRRT has a direct and substantial impact on metabolism. Indirect calorimetry is the preferred method to assess resting energy expenditure (REE). Moderate underestimation of REE is common but not clinically relevant. Formula-based calculation of REE is inaccurate and not validated in critically ill children on CRRT. The nutrition impact of nonintentional calories delivered as citrate, lactate, and glucose during CRRT must be considered. Quantifying nitrogen balance is not feasible during CRRT. Protein delivery should be increased by 25% to compensate for losses in the effluent. Fats are not removed by CRRT and should not be adapted during CRRT. Electrolyte disturbances are frequently present and should be treated accordingly. Vitamins B1, B6, B9, and C are lost in the effluent and should be adapted to the effluent dose. Trace elements, with the exception of selenium, are not cleared in relevant quantities. Manganese accumulation is of concern because of potential neurotoxicity.

CONCLUSION: Current recommendations regarding nutrition support in pediatric CRRT must be extrapolated from adult studies. Recommendations are provided, based on the weak level of evidence. Additional research on this topic is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-47
Number of pages11
JournalNutrition in Clinical Practice
Issue number1
Early online date20 Dec 2018
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019

    Research areas

  • indirect calorimetry, intensive care units, nutrition support, pediatrics, renal replacement therapy

ID: 43630470