This study examines situational antecedents of transformational leadership by (a) studying the effect of time pressure on the emergence of transformational leadership behaviours, and (b) examining the mediating role of leaders’ state core self-evaluations. Twice per day for 10 consecutive working days, 42 leaders reported on their state core self-evaluations, transformational leadership behaviours and the time pressure they experienced, yielding 531 observations. Using multilevel path analysis, we found that time pressure had an indirect effect on transformational leadership through leaders’ state core self-evaluations. This mediated relationship was curvilinear; with time pressure having little to no effect on transformational leadership via state core self-evaluations when time pressure is below a leader’s average level of time pressure. However, once this characteristic average level is exceeded, time pressure has a negative effect on transformational leadership via its negative relationship with state core self-evaluations, and this relationship becomes stronger for increasing levels of time pressure.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020

    Research areas

  • challenge stressors, core self-evaluations, psychological resources, time pressure, Transformational leadership

ID: 49371181