Renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems (ESSs) are the key technologies for smart
grid applications and provide great opportunities to de-carbonize urban areas, regulate frequency,
voltage deviations, and respond to severe time when the load exceeds the generation. Nevertheless,
uncertainty and inherent intermittence of renewable power generation units impose severe stresses
on power systems. Energy storage systems such as battery energy storage system enables the power
grid to improve acceptability of intermittent renewable energy generation. To do so, a successful
coordination between renewable power generation units, ESSs and the grid is required. Nonetheless,
with the existing grid architecture, achieving the aforementioned targets is intangible. In this regard,
coupling renewable energy systems with different generation characteristics and equipping the power
systems with the battery storage systems require a smooth transition from the conventional power
system to the smart grid. Indeed, this coordination requires not only robust but also innovative controls
and models to promote the implementation of the next-generation grid architecture. In this context,
the present research proposes a smart grid architecture depicting a smart grid consisting of the main
grid and multiple embedded micro-grids. Moreover, a focus has been given to micro-grid systems
by proposing a ‘‘Micro-grid Key Elements Model’’ (MKEM). The proposed model and architecture
are tested and validated by virtualization. The implementation of the virtualized system integrates
solar power generation units, battery energy storage systems with the proposed grid architecture.
The virtualization of the proposed grid architecture addresses issues related to Photovoltaic (PV)
penetration, back-feeding, and irregularity of supply. The simulation results show the effect of
Renewable Energy (RE) integration into the grid and highlight the role of batteries that maintain the
stability of the system.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalSustainable Energy, Grids and Networks
Volume18
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2019

    Research areas

  • Smart grid, Micro-grid, Virtualization, Storage energy, Renewable sources

ID: 45822640