Dental implant placement is a common treatment procedure in current dental practice. High implant survival rates as well as limited peri-implant bone loss has been achieved over the past decades due to continuous modifications of implant design and surface topography. Since the turn of the millennium, implant surface modifications have focused on stronger and faster bone healing. This has not only yielded higher implant survival rates but also allowed modifications in surgical as well as prosthetic treatment protocols such as immediate implant placement and immediate loading. Stable crestal bone levels have been considered a key factor in implant success because it is paramount for long-term survival, aesthetics as well as peri-implant health. Especially during the past decade, clinicians and researchers have paid much attention to peri-implant health and more specifically to the incidence of bone loss. This could furthermore increase the risk for peri-implantitis, the latter often diagnosed as ongoing bone loss and pocket formation beyond the normal biological range in the presence of purulence or bleeding on probing. Information on the effect of surface topography on bone loss or peri-implantitis, a disease process that is to be evaluated in the long-term, is also scarce. Therefore, the current narrative review discusses whether long-term peri-implant bone loss beyond physiological bone adaptation is affected by the surface roughness of dental implants. Based on comparative studies, evaluating implants with comparable design but different surface roughness, it can be concluded that average peri-implant bone loss around the moderately rough and minimally rough surfaces is less than around rough surfaces. However, due to the multifactorial cause for bone loss the clinical impact of surface roughness alone on bone loss and peri-implantitis risk seems rather limited and of minimal clinical importance. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that certain patient factors, such as a history of periodontal disease and smoking, lead to more peri-implant bone loss.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)218-227
Number of pages10
JournalPeriodontology 2000
Volume73
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2017

ID: 28800559