Activated microglia express the translocator protein (TSPO) on the outer mitochondrial membrane. 18F-PBR111 is a second-generation PET ligand that specifically binds the TSPO, allowing in vivo visualization and quantification of neuroinflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the test-retest variability of 18FPBR111 in healthy controls is acceptable to detect a psychosisassociated neuroinflammatory signal in schizophrenia. Methods: Dynamic 90-min 18F-PBR111 scans were obtained in 17 healthy male controls (HCs) and 11 male schizophrenia patients (SPs) during a psychotic episode. Prior genotyping for the rs6917 polymorphism distinguished high-affinity binders (HABs) and mixed-affinity binders (MABs). Total volume of distribution (VT) was determined from 2-tissue-compartment modeling with vascular trapping and a metabolite-corrected plasma input function. A subgroup of HCs (n 5 12; 4 HABs and 8 MABs) was scanned twice to assess absolute test-retest variability and intraclass correlation coefficients of the regional VT values. Differences in TSPO binding between HC and SP were assessed using mixed model analysis adjusting for age, genotype, and age∗cohort. The effect of using different scan durations (VT-60 min versus VT-90 min) was determined based on Pearson r. Data were mean ± SD. Results: Mean absolute variability in VT ranged from 16% ± 14% (19% ± 20% HAB; 15% ± 11% MAB) in the cortical gray matter to 22% ± 15% (23% ± 15% HAB; 22% ± 16% MAB) in the hippocampus. Intraclass correlation coefficients were consistently between 0.64 and 0.82 for all tested regions. TSPO binding in SP compared with HC depended on age (cohort∗age: P , 0.05) and was increased by 114% ± 4% over the regions. There was a significant effect of genotype on TSPO binding, and VT of HABs was 31% ± 8% (HC: 17% ± 5%, SP: 61% ± 14%) higher than MABs. Across all clinical groups, VT-60 min and VT-90 min were strongly correlated (r . 0.7, P , 0.0001). Conclusion: 18F-PBR111 can be used for monitoring of TSPO binding, as shown by medium test-retest variability and reliability of VT in HCs. Microglial activation is present in SPs depending on age and needs to be adjusted for genotype.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1267-1274
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number8
Early online date11 Jan 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018

    Research areas

  • PET imaging, Healthy controls, schizophrenia , test , retest reproducibility, quantification, neuroinflammation, Kinetic modeling, Schizophrenia, TSPO, F-PBR111, Microglia

ID: 36045228