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For long-term storage, part of the excess renewable energy can be stored into various fuels, among which ammonia and hydrogen show a high potential. To improve the power-to-fuel-to-power overall efficiency and reduce NOx emissions, the intrinsic properties of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engines could be used to convert these carbon-free fuels back into electricity and heat. Yet, ignition delay times for ammonia are not available at relevant LTC conditions. This lack of fundamental kinetic knowledge leads to uncertain ignition delay predictions by the existing ammonia kinetic mechanisms and prevents from determining optimal LTC running conditions. Using a Rapid Compression Machine (RCM), we have studied the ignition delay of ammonia with hydrogen addition (0%, 10%, and 25%vol.) under LTC conditions: low equivalence ratios (0.2, 0.35, 0.5), high pressures (43 bar and 65 bar) and low temperatures (1000 K - 1100 K). This paper presents the comparison of the experimental data with simulation results obtained with five kinetic mechanisms found in the literature. It then provides a sensitivity analysis to highlight the most influencing reactions on the ignition of the ammonia-hydrogen blends. The obtained range of ignition delays for pure ammonia and for the ammonia-hydrogen blends prove their suitability for LTC engines. Still the hydrogen addition must be greater than 10%vol. to produce a significant promotion of the ignition delay. The two best performing mechanisms still predict too long ignition delays for pure ammonia, while the delays become too short for ammonia-hydrogen blends. A third mechanism captures correctly the relative influence of hydrogen addition, but is globally over-reactive. Through a sensitivity analysis, H2NO has been identified as the main cause for the under-reactive pure ammonia kinetics and N2Hx has been identified as the main cause for globally over-reactive ammonia-hydrogen mechanisms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)621-629
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019

    Research areas

  • Ammonia, Ignition delay, Kinetic mechanisms, Low Temperature Combustion, Rapid Compression Machine

ID: 38246885