• Niels Van Regenmortel
  • Steven Hendrickx
  • Ella Roelant
  • Ingrid Baar
  • Karolien Dams
  • Karen Van Vlimmeren
  • Bart Embrecht
  • Anouk Wittock
  • Jeroen M Hendriks
  • Patrick Lauwers
  • Paul E Van Schil
  • Amaryllis H Van Craenenbroeck
  • Walter Verbrugghe
  • Manu L N G Malbrain
  • Tim Van den Wyngaert
  • Philippe G Jorens

Purpose: To determine the effects of the sodium content of maintenance fluid therapy on cumulative fluid balance and electrolyte disorders. Methods: We performed a randomized controlled trial of adults undergoing major thoracic surgery, randomly assigned (1:1) to receive maintenance fluids containing 154 mmol/L (Na154) or 54 mmol/L (Na54) of sodium from the start of surgery until their discharge from the ICU, the occurrence of a serious adverse event or the third postoperative day at the latest. Investigators, caregivers and patients were blinded to the treatment. Primary outcome was cumulative fluid balance. Electrolyte disturbances were assessed as secondary endpoints, different adverse events and physiological markers as safety and exploratory endpoints. Findings: We randomly assigned 70 patients; primary outcome data were available for 33 and 34 patients in the Na54 and Na154 treatment arms, respectively. Estimated cumulative fluid balance at 72 h was 1369 mL (95% CI 601–2137) more positive in the Na154 arm (p < 0.001), despite comparable non-study fluid sources. Hyponatremia < 135 mmol/L was encountered in four patients (11.8%) under Na54 compared to none under Na154 (p = 0.04), but there was no significantly more hyponatremia < 130 mmol/L (1 versus 0; p = 0.31). There was more hyperchloremia > 109 mmol/L under Na154 (24/35 patients, 68.6%) than under Na54 (4/34 patients, 11.8%) (p < 0.001). The treating clinicians discontinued the study due to clinical or radiographic fluid overload in six patients receiving Na154 compared to one patient under Na54 (excess risk 14.2%; 95% CI − 0.2–30.4%, p = 0.05). Conclusions: In adult surgical patients, sodium-rich maintenance solutions were associated with a more positive cumulative fluid balance and hyperchloremia; hypotonic fluids were associated with mild and asymptomatic hyponatremia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1422-1432
Number of pages11
JournalIntensive Care Medicine
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

ID: 48782093